Energy security and global environmental change
Global energy systems play a key role in the transformation to sustainability. “For a sustainable future, by 2050, between 60 and 80% of the world’s primary energy supply must come from low-carbon energy sources, either non-combustible renewables, nuclear power, hydropower, possibly bio-energy, and fossil fuels and bio-energy with carbon capture and storage. Currently, however, more than 80% of the energy comes from unabated fossil fuels” says one of the policy brief lead author Professor Detlef van Vuuren, Utrecht University.
Challenges include providing energy access for the poor, reducing environmental impacts of energy use while ensuring energy security. “Addressing these challenges simultaneously will require a fundamental transformation of the energy system and organising the governance systems that could support such a transformation,” says co-lead author Professor Keywan Riahi, IIASA.
“This requires a long-term vision and associated short-term targets including more integrated policy-making, more effective and stronger policy incentives, and new, transparent decision-making that builds acceptance for major transformational changes in the energy systems at all levels.” says co-lead author Professor Nebojsa Nakicenovic, TU Wien and IIASA.
Pathways towards a Green Economy
A successful green economy will require more than technological innovation, it will need a societal transformation process, according to the policy brief on the green economy. Societies, the authors argue, need to draw up a new global social contract.
“We need to establish a common set of rules for the global economic system based on sustainability and wellbeing. We need new economic measures of progress beyond GDP,” said lead author Professor Anantha Duraiappah, Executive Director of the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP).
“We must move from GDP per capita to inclusive wealth, which measures the productive base of a country while keeping track of natural, social, human and produced capital,” he added.
The brief suggests the international scientific community should provide recommendations to redesign trade rules, financial flows and investment within the context of planetary boundaries and the wellbeing of all people. This includes the need to go beyond simply measuring the economic output or income of countries and to compute inclusive wealth accounts as a new macroeconomic indicator to guide economic development towards sustainability.
Human wellbeing as key for a more sustainable future
In times of unprecedented food, energy, economic and security crises, there is a strong need for urgent, innovative solutions on a global scale to enhance human wellbeing. The wellbeing policy brief sets out key messages to guide humanity on the road to a more sustainable socioeconomic and ecological future.
“Wellbeing goes beyond simple material prosperity and cannot be measured by income,” explains lead author Professor Anantha Duraiappah, Executive Director, IHDP. “It includes notions of security, spiritual health, personal freedom, and the surety to feel well - both physically and emotionally.”
To improve worldwide human wellbeing, reducing absolute poverty is essential, but not sufficient. Reducing inequality is a crucial step towards wellbeing. This will require a paradigm shift: away from economic growth, competitiveness and personal gain towards shared wellbeing.
Health in a changing natural environment
"Human health is an important but under-recognised goal of sustainable development. We will bear the burden of ill health from global environmental changes well before we reach any obvious biophysical ‘tipping point’ in our Earth Systems. We already have enough evidence to show that we can choose environmental policies, strategies and technologies that benefit health and benefit the environment - locally and globally." states lead author Dr. Sari Korvats, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
The original Rio Declaration stated that all people are "entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature". We know that health burdens from environmental pollution and environmental degradation are unequally distributed - and these inequalities are likely to get worse and not better, even with economic development.
Eating less animal products, switching to active transport, providing clean energy, will all protect health and ensure progress towards sustainable development. Monitoring human health indicators will enable us to evaluate progress towards sustainable development.